mardi 29 janvier 2013

La distribution de la citoyenneté à tous par l'Empire, dernier artifice des kleptos avant effondrement

Citoyenneté romaine

Quelques dates importantes marquent l'évolution de la concession de la citoyenneté :

   La lex Iulia de Civitate Latinis Danda ou lex Julia (-90) accorde la citoyenneté romaine aux peuples d'Italie qui ne s'étaient pas révoltés après l'assasinat de Livius Drusus4
   La lex Plautia Papiria (-89) étend le droit de cité complet à tous les habitants libres d'Italie au sud du Pô. Cette mesure permet de clore la Guerre sociale en satisfaisant sa principale revendication4.
   en -88, la lex Pompeia accorde la citoyenneté latine à tous les habitants de Gaule cisalpine4
   en -65, la Lex Papia réprime l’usurpation de citoyenneté romaine
   en -49, la lex Roscia, adoptée au début de la guerre civile, accorde la citoyenneté romaine à tous les habitants de Gaule cisalpine4. L'ensemble de la Gaule cisalpine est ensuite annexé à l'Italie en -42.
   en -44, à l'initiative de Marc Antoine, la citoyenneté romaine est donnée à tous les hommes libres de Sicile, cette mesure fut partiellement révoquée par Auguste.
   en 48 de notre ère, comme en témoigne la Table claudienne de Lyon, Claude accorde l'accès aux magistratures et au sénat aux notables de la Gaule Chevelue : cela est souvent vu comme la concession du jus honorum. Claude, sans se départir d'un profond respect pour le statut de citoyen, fut, à l'occasion notamment de sa censure, l'artisan d'une ouverture importante de la citoyenneté, ouverture parfois jugée trop généreuse par ses contemporains, qui tel Sénèque raillèrent un empereur qui aurait voulu voir tous les Gaulois en toge5. La Tabula Clesiana témoigne aussi selon Edmond Frézouls6 de cette conception claudienne où la citoyenneté devient l'instrument de l'équilibre de l'empire.
   Vespasien (69-79) octroie le droit latin à toutes les villes d’Hispanie
   en 212 enfin, citoyenneté romaine à tous les hommes libres de l’Empire (Édit de Caracalla)

Le processus étant toujours le même... De réel avantage au départ, et offrant un droit de regard sur la cité, la citoyenneté finit par n'être qu'une obligation de payer le tribut, alors que la démocratie est méthodiquement retirée par la kleptocratie...

In fine, l'Empire s'effondre quand tout le monde n'en a plus rien à foutre de la citoyenneté et cherche même à la fuir... Cf l'abstention aujourd'hui...



Et faut voir où en était déjà Rome en 200 après JC, en terme d'avilissement impérial, de multi culturalisme totalement raté et transformé en racket par les armées mercenaires wisigothes, à l'époque de Caracala et des empereurs guerriers, tous morts de mort violente...

Et pour conclure, la bible :
Inflation and the Fall of the Roman Empire
Joseph R. Peden, 07/09/2009 (traduire en Français texte en anglais )
http://mises.org/story/3663

To look at the mentality of the Roman emperors, we can look just at the advice that the Emperor Septimius Severus gave to his two sons, Caracalla and Geta. This is supposed to be his final words to his heirs. He said, "live in harmony; enrich the troops; ignore everyone else." Now, there is a monetary policy to be marveled at!

Caracalla did not adhere to the first part of that advice; in fact, one of his first acts was to murder his brother. But as for enriching the troops, he took that so seriously to heart that his mother remonstrated with him and urged him to be more moderate and to restrain his increasing military expenditures and burdensome new taxes. He responded by saying there was no longer any revenue, just or unjust, to be found. But not to worry, "for as long as we have this," he insisted, pointing to his sword, "we shall not run short of money."

His sense of priorities was made more explicit when he remarked, "nobody should have any money but I, so that I may bestow it upon the soldiers." And he was as good as his word. He raised the pay of the soldiers by 50 percent, and to achieve this he doubled the inheritance taxes paid by Roman citizens. When this was not sufficient to meet his needs, he admitted almost every inhabitant of the empire to Roman citizenship. What had formerly been a privilege now became simply a means of expanding the tax base.

He then went further by proceeding to debase the coinage. The basic coinage of the Roman Empire to this time — we're speaking now about 211 AD — was the silver denarius introduced by Augustus at about 95 percent silver at the end of the 1st century BC. The denarius continued for the better part of two centuries as the basic medium of exchange in the empire.

Caracalla was assassinated in 217. There then followed an age that historians refer to as the Age of the Barrack Emperors, because throughout the 3rd century all the emperors were soldiers and all of them came to their power by military coups of one sort or another.

There were about 26 legitimate emperors in this century and only one of them died a natural death. The rest either died in battle or were assassinated, which was totally unprecedented in Roman history — with two exceptions: Nero, a suicide, and Caligula, assassinated earlier.

We could start with the class known as the decurions. This was your prosperous, small- and middle-landowning class who were the dominant elements of the cities of the Roman Empire. They were the class from whom the municipal counsels, magistrates, and officials were chosen.

Traditionally, they had viewed service in the governments of their towns as an honor and they had donated, not merely their time, but also their wealth to the betterment of the urban environment. Building stadiums and bathhouses, and repairing the streets and providing for pure water were considered benefactions. It was a kind of philanthropic act and their reward was, of course, public recognition and esteem.

This class, in the mid-3rd century, was assigned the task of collecting the taxes in the municipality. The central government could no longer collect its taxes effectively, so they made the decurion class collectively responsible for getting revenues and passing them on to the imperial government.

The decurions, of course, had as much difficulty as anyone else in doing this, and the returns were, again, frequently inadequate. So the government solved that problem by simply passing a law that any taxes that decurions could not collect from others, they would have to pay out of their own pockets. That's known as the incentive method for the tax collector. [laughter]

As you can well imagine, as the crises became greater and the economy was disrupted by civil conflicts and invasions and the effects of inflation, the decurions, strangely enough, no longer wanted to be decurions. They began to abandon their lands, abandon their cities, and escape to wherever they could find refuge in other larger cities or other provinces. But they were not to be allowed to do that with impunity, and a law was then passed that any decurion discovered somewhere else was to be arrested, bound like a slave, and carted back to his hometown where he would be restored to his dignity as a decurion. [laughter]

Salvian tells us, and I don't think he's exaggerating, that one of the reasons why the Roman state collapsed in the 5th century was that the Roman people, the mass of the population, had but one wish after being captured by the barbarians: to never again fall under the rule of the Roman bureaucracy.

In other words, the Roman state was the enemy; the barbarians were the liberators. And this undoubtedly was due to the inflation of the 3rd century. While the state had solved the monetary problem for its own constituents, it had failed to solve it for the masses. Rome continued to use an oppressive system of taxation in order to fill the coffers of the ruling bureaucrats and soldiers.

Avec l'audio de la conférence :
→ lien 

4 commentaires:

  1. Autant on peut douter de l'impartialité d'une source comme le Mises institute sur le sujet (qu'un site libéral ait une lecture libérale de l'histoire, c'est assez logique), autant il est admis par la quasi-totalité des historiens d'aujourd'hui que l'arrivée des "envahisseurs" barbares a (en général) été vécue par les peuples comme une libération d'un empire trop gros, trop "bureaucratique" et devenu incapable de s'auto-alimenter.

    Mais il ne faut pas perdre de vue que ça a pris beaucoup de temps, plusieurs siècles en fait.

    RépondreSupprimer
  2. Faut voir.
    Pendant ce temps là en Grèce : http://www.presseurop.eu/fr/content/article/3328881-pas-moyen-de-gagner-son-pain-ici

    RépondreSupprimer
  3. sur les différentes théories du pourquoi, voir :
    http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/D%C3%A9clin_de_l%27Empire_romain_d%27Occident

    la plus solide (comme cause principale, on a sans doute ensuite un effet boule de neige) semble être celle du "rejetées dès le début" qui colle avec celle (justes au dessus) de Heather et Bury en complément et suites logiques : l'absence de sources financières pérennes mine peu à peu les capacités militaires

    RépondreSupprimer
  4. A lié également au cas des USA
    Obama se lance dans la régularisation des sans papiers et le pire c'est qu'il ne cache même pas que c'est aussi pour les faire rentrer dans le giron des prélèvements étatiques et bancaires.

    RépondreSupprimer

Si votre commentaire n'apparaît pas tout de suite, c'est normal. Il doit être validé avant publication.